Monitoring and Evaluation
EDC is probably the most highly
specialized provider of M&E services in the country. Based on international
principles and practices, and in response to the expectations of taxpayers and
parliaments, EDC consistently promotes M&E systems that focus sharply on impact
and outcome. Its ability to lead M&E assignments in a variety of sectors can be
illustrated with reference to the following snapshots from its experience:
In recent years, EDC has
undertaken about 30 diverse evaluations and assessments in Pakistan, Sri
Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, China and three countries of Eastern Africa,
namely, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, spanning community-level assessments,
institutional analyses, project and country programme evaluations, country
reports on Pakistanís global commitments, and studies on improving
monitoring and evaluation approaches and systems. Clients included donor
agencies and CSOs.
actively engaged in developing M&E systems and providing full-time and
short-term expertise for ongoing USAID projects (the FATA Capacity Building
Programme; the FATA Livelihood Development Programme, North; and the
Smallhoder Dairy Development Project for Punjab and Sindh). It has also
been engaged for M&E system development and training by a number of NGOs,
UNDP and the Royal Norwegian Embassy, the latter for support to its civil
and Rural Development
Based on the
cutting-edge experience of its senior managers, EDC started its practice with a
strong background in participatory approaches to rural development. During the
1990s, EDC contributed to the design and implementation of several multi-sectoral
rural development projects as well as on-farm water management and forestry
initiatives. At the same time, EDC developed high-quality research capability
in agriculture and irrigation, working with clients such as USAID and
international centres including CIMMYT and IWMI. It subsequently acquired a
niche (including diverse international experience) in the evaluation of rural
development and agriculture programmes by working mainly with multilateral
organizations (such as IFAD and UNDP). EDC benefits from continuing association
with some of the leading contributors to international discourse on agriculture
and rural development.
the 1990s, EDC teams participated in the design of two large ADB-assisted
rural development projects in NWFP (the Barani and Malakand projects) and
the implementation of two projects (both of them for barani areas) in Punjab
and NWFP. In 2007, under contract to IFAD, EDC conducted a comprehensive
impact assessment of the two barani projects and developed practical
recommendations for improving design and implementation. During 2001-2007,
EDC participated in a number of evaluations of IFADís rural development and
agriculture projects, strategies and partners (including specialized
international agencies) in Asia and East Africa.
by the Rockefeller Foundation, an EDC team worked closely with CIMMYT Mexico
to analyze the impact of 30 years of technological change (1960s t0 1990s)
on production, consumption and government policy, and on the land, labour
and water markets in Pakistan, with a focus on food crops. In an assignment
for IWMI Pakistan, EDC provided
economics perspectives for research on crop-water interactions, measures of
irrigation performance, conjunctive use, and equity and variability in
distributary flows. EDC consultants were also engaged under a USAID
agricultural policy analysis project.
a team of staff and consultants from EDC and the Aga Khan Rural Support
Programme (AKRSP), led by EDC under a DFID contract, completed a study on
operational insights from 20 years of AKRSP. The team developed insights in
social mobilization, agriculture and natural resource management, enterprise
development and community infrastructure development that were included in a
book published in the UK.
During 2007, working closely
with UNDP, the Co-chairs (ILO and FAO) and 14 other agencies, EDCís Managing
Director carried out the situation analysis, performance assessment, SWOT
analysis, and formulation of issues for adoption in the joint programmes of
the UNís Working Group on Agriculture, Rural Development and Poverty for the
One UN approach in Pakistan.
Decentralization and Local
Thoughtful and gradual
decentralization, all the way down to the community level, is often considered
to be an essential element of good governance and service delivery. We
recognize that decentralization is initially disruptive and could also lead to
elite capture of resources in stratified societies. Even in the long term,
decentralization, on its own, may not lead to better service delivery or poverty
alleviation. EDCís preferred approach includes decentralization in public
finance and human resources management, timely and consistent support for
capacity development (of elected as well as administrative institutions, and
especially for developing a pro-poor orientation), and linkages with autonomous
organized communities that articulate the voice of the poor.
An EDC team conceptualized and conducted a
thematic evaluation of ďIFADís Performance and Impact in Decentralizing
Environments: Experiences from Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia.Ē It
recommended area-based strategies for local governance
poverty alleviation as the first step in supporting decentralization
initiatives through donor-assisted projects. The recommendations were noted
with appreciation by the Evaluation Committee of the Executive Board of IFAD.
The devolution process introduced in
Pakistan in 2001 has been under review since 2008 by the newly-elected
Federal and Provincial Governments. The Ministry of Local Government and
Rural Development was tasked by the Prime Minister to coordinate the reform
process. We assisted the Secretary of the Ministry in conceptualizing and
structuring an international workshop on Successful Models in Capacity
Development for Local Self Governance towards Urban Renewal and Rural
Reconstruction, and prepared an analytical report with recommendations that
were approved by the Prime Minister.
Gender equality is an integral part
of EDCís values and work. This is reflected in all situation analyses,
strategies, project designs, M&E systems, business processes and evaluations
assigned to EDC. Depending on the context, positive discrimination in favour of
women as well as rigorous gender analysis is considered appropriate. EDCís work
focuses strongly on gender aspects and promotes the empowerment and inclusion of
women in development and governance. We facilitate stakeholders to this effect
with reference to relevant principles, commitments and policies, including those
emanating from religious leaders, human rights and the MDGs.
Working for the UNDP Country
Office in Pakistan, EDCís Managing Director reviewed the
gender-related policies and practices of
UNDP, in conjunction with those of its partners, including the government.
The assignment resulted in far-reaching but practical recommendations for
changes in the internal environment and project cycle management.
seven-person team (including two consultants on gender mainstreaming) found
that half the civil society projects of leading CSOs, supported by the Royal
Norwegian Embassy, Islamabad, were silent on gender issues. The team
recommended feasible systemic changes for promoting gender analysis and
EDC has supported the Rural Support
Programmes (RSPs) and civil society organizations (CSOs) since the establishment
of the firm. The RSPs distinguish themselves from other non-governmental
organizations by observing that they aim to assist the government in its poverty
alleviation objectives. Many CSOs, however, especially those working in culture
and human rights, have found government to be less than benign. EDC respects
the diversity of views in civil society, and supports the inclusion of culture
and rights-based approaches in civil society initiatives as well as
Working for the
Rural Support Programmes Network, and
supported by the Council of Social Sciences of Pakistan, an EDC team
carried out a research study on local level institutions (LLIs) in three
provinces of the country during 2007-2008. The study analyzedóand
commendedósingle-sector as well as multipurpose LLIs sponsored by the RSPs.
It noted, however, that institutions such as these are generally starved of
resources, and recommended that the RSPs develop and advocate a rights-based
approach in pursuit of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for rural
Commissioned by the Royal Norwegian Embassy, EDC fielded a seven-person team
in 2008 for a comprehensive review of Norwayís Civil Society Portfolio in
Pakistan, covering 17 leading CSOs in the areas of governance, culture,
human rights (including gender and child rights) and the environment. The
team assessed programme results, strategic orientation and operational
dimensions, and provided strategic advice on the future of the programme.
The need to strengthen monitoring and evaluation and the pro-poor and gender
orientation of the portfolio were among the major findings of the review.
Informal Economy, Jobs and
Accounting for more than 70% of the
employed workforce, the informal economy is the poor personís economy in a
country such as Pakistan. An EDC study, commissioned by USAID, completed in
1990 and extensively quoted by the then Finance Minister, analyzed the
causes and evolution of the informal economy
in seven sectors (industry, finance, housing, transportation, trade, health and
education) in eight cities, examining hypotheses from Hernando de Sotoís seminal
work, The Other Path. This was a formative experience that influenced
EDCís wide-ranging involvement in sectors such as micro-enterprise development
and microfinance, in both rural and urban areas.
at the invitation of the of Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty
Alleviation, EDCís Managing Director prepared case studies summing up
Pakistanís innovative experiences in the development of katchi abadis
(squatter settlements) and challenges to sustainability in microfinance.
The microfinance case
study concluded that differences in the prevailing demand and supply
conditions, particularly between urban and rural areas and occupations,
inhibitóand will continue to inhibitóthe emergence of a standard sustainable
model of microfinance.
EDCís Managing Director carried out an analysis of trends in the labour
market as part of the design of the workforce development initiative of the
economic growth portfolio of USAID Pakistan. The assignment included a
review of unemployment trends and of government and non-governmental
initiatives for employment and skills development.
Benchmarking, Training and Change Management
approach to benchmarking has been developed and refined over a period of 13
years. It can be used for promotional purposes, stand-alone training or more
comprehensive change management. The basic idea is to learn from those who are
ahead of others, recognizing that some people in an organization are better than
others at doing the same job, and some organizations are better than others in
the same field. This provides an empirical basis for training personnel as well
as institutionalizing change. It can also be used to publicize the good
practices of an organization, in either inspirational or operational terms.
1998-2000, an EDC team worked with the Human Development Initiative of UNDP
Myanmar on a change management assignment. This programme included 10
projects executed by five UN agencies and three international NGOs.
Operations analysis from the field to headquarters led to revision of
operational policies and procedures for community participation and
inter-agency co-ordination, revision of job descriptions, and training of
staff and beneficiaries.
2007-2008, we documented the implementation practices of the Musalihat
Anjumans, an alternative dispute resolution mechanism introduced in Pakistan
at the local level. Supported by UNDP and the Government, this programme
introduced a strong element of gender justice in the reform process. The
documentation was intended to publicize good practices through an analytical
report and individual case studies.